Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Great Depression - Free Essay Example

1. The financial crisis of 2007-2009 has been called the worst financial crisis since the one related to the Great Depression by leading economists. a) Discuss the main factors that have contributed to the crisis. (20 marks) The financial crisis was due to the bankruptcy of banks and extreme market volatility. One of the factors leading to the financial crisis was the growth of the housing bubble which happened in 2005 to 2006. Real house prices surged greatly, making residential real estate great and very safe investment. This housing bubble resulted in numerous homeowners refinancing their homes at lower interest rates. Therefore, it was very easy to borrow money, especially for purchasing a home. This caused the high default rates on subprime and adjustable rate mortgages (ARM) to increase quickly. Cheap and easy credit terms (low interest rates) and a long-term trend of rising housing prices encourage borrowing since the Federal Reserve slashed the interest rates to cope with recession and September 11 terrorist attacks. This affects consumption and investment to increase as people and firms will borrow more. Loans such as mortgages and credit cards were easy to obtain and consumers feel that they have the ability to repay within the stated credit period. Banks repackage the mort gages as mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and collateralized debt obligations (CDO) and these financial instruments greatly increased as borrowers want higher returns. There is also a lack of transparency and understanding by the investors. Thus, the risk in investing regular mortgage backed securities was considered low and it was sold to institutions and investors all around the world. In addition, investors invested more than they actually had capital for as they considered such securities low risk. This in turn contributed to the deflating of the housing bubble as asset prices move inversely to interest rates and it is risky to speculate in housing. USA housing and financial assets decreased in value after the housing bubble burst. Even so, many banks and firms still continued bundling the mortgages despite many of them had bad loans, and Wall Street kept buying and selling them to investors. Agencies that regulate the U.S. financial sector were also not paying attention. Besides easy credit conditions, both government and competitive pressures led to an increase in the amount of subprime lending. Major U.S. investment banks and government sponsored enterprises like Fannie Mae contributed in the expansion of higher-risk lending. Some banks and institutions were willing to lend money to homebuyers with poor credit. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) relaxes the net capital rule and this encouraged the largest five investment banks to increase their financial leverage and aggressively expand their issuance of mortgage-backed securities. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac further expanded their riskier lending. The subprime lending increased United States homeownership rate significantly. Thus, rents decrease and house prices increase. The increase in housing prices stopped in 2006 and many subprime borrowers faced difficulties paying their mortgage and some was on the verge of bankruptcy. The losses in the subprime mortgage markets triggered u proar throughout the international financial system in mid 2007. Confidence in many financial institutions and stock market were also affected. When stockholders found out about the bad loans these firms were carrying, they withdraw their money immediately. The markets plummeted. Besides that, there was a lack in trust in banks and interbank lending was disrupted. Defaults and losses on other loan types also increased significantly as the crisis expanded to other parts of the economy. Demise of Bear Stearns happened in March. In July, IndyMac Bank went into receivership, but the worse of all was the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. In conclusion, all this happened due to greed, lack of regulation and creative innovation in the financial industry. b) Assess the impact of the US financial crisis on the Singapore economy. (20 marks) Singapore was the first East Asian country to suffer a recession from the US financial crisis after July 2008. As Singapore is a small nation, we have to rely heavily on exports and almost 66 percent of its domestic production is exported. Singapores economy will hence be affected since its export partners are affected by economic crisis. The recession arises due to the reduction of non-oil exports in manufactured goods caused by the deterioration of economic conditions in the US and Europe. The slowdown is caused by the weak global demand for high technology equipments, an industry on which Singapore is heavily reliant. As a result, Singapore exports decline drastically. In the first quarter of 2009, trade fell by a sharp 24 per cent. Fluctuations in Singapores real GDP are closely related to changes in trade figures because Singapore is an open economy. Hence, with the decrease in trade, Singapore real GDP declines. Labour productivity in the economy has also been declining due to recession. Cyclical unemployment rate increases due to recession as workers are unable to secure similar paying jobs. Companies are encouraged to make cut wages instead of retrenchment. Consumption will decrease as people have less income due to pay cut or retrenchment. The industries that were adversely affected by job losses are manufacturing, transport, tourism and wholesale trade since these sectors are most exposed to the external economic environment. The manufacturing industry, which accounts for a quarter of the economy, contracted 11.5 percent in 2009 last quarter, compared with a revised 4.9 percent drop in the previous three months, mainly due to the persistent weakness in global demand for electronics, chemicals and biomedical products. Due to this financial crisis, Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) eases its monetary policy to combat slowing growth. In order to boost export, MAS shifted Singapore dollar to a neutral stance, making it cheaper in relatio n to other major currencies and making domestic exports competitive. The Singapore currency has declined 8.1 percent against the U.S. dollar in that period. However, this also implies that import of necessities will be more expensive which will affect the purchasing power of people, i.e. people will spend less. There will be lesser business for companies and they will be struggling to stay afloat. Inflation in 2008 was 6.5%, higher than expected owing to rising oil and commodity prices. Hence, we can see supermarkets like NTUC selling many household brands to help the poor/middle aged families to survive this financial crisis. Due to expectations that inflation will get worse, consumers will curb their spending and consumption decrease as a result. The exposure of Singapores banks to sub-prime mortgage is limited. Economic conditions in Singapore have been affected by the massive loss in wealth from the collapse of the stock market. This in turn reduces consumption and investm ent in assets. Businesses might not have the operating capital and some businesses cannot meet their operating expenses. The government plays an important role to combat recession. They tapped its reserves to tackle this crisis and implemented ways to boost infrastructure spending and public aid in its Budget. 2) The Singapore governments year-long scheme to help companies avoid retrenchments and keep unemployment numbers down has been extended for another six months till June 2010. (a) Explain the likely causes of unemployment in Singapore. The causes of unemployment in Singapore can be described under 3 categories namely, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment and cyclical unemployment. Frictional unemployment is short term unemployment associated with the process of matching workers with jobs. This is commonly seen in Singapore as people will always spend time to look for better jobs e.g. higher pay, higher satisfaction based on their competency. One example will be university graduates who may need more time to search for jobs at an acceptable salary. Structural unemployment is long term and chronic unemployment which happens due to regular and predictable changes in labour demand.Due to the revolving world, everything is changing which might lead to a decrease in demand for certain goods/services. Hence, structural unemployment may arise due to rapid changes in technology. Besides that, it could also be due to lack of relevant skills which are in demand by the employers, language barriers, discrimi nation on the basis of age, ethnicity and race and long-term mismatch as employees need time to learn new skills. Major shifts of consumption taste and a variety of other factors can reduce the demand for certain skills and increase that of others, thus making structural unemployment occur. Structural unemployment also exists where there is a mismatch between the skills of the workforce and the requirements of job opportunities or the workers live too far from the demanding area. For example, many unemployed workers from manufacturing industry found it difficult to find new jobs without re-training. Cyclical unemployment depends on the business cycle. It will arise when there is a recession (lowest peak of the business cycle) as the business cycle is low and many firms will reduce the demand for inputs, including labor in recessional periods when production declines. On the other hand, cyclical unemployment will decrease when there is economic growth (highest peak of the busin ess cycle) because total economic output is being maximized. b) Describe the various policies implemented by the Singapore government to solve the problem of increasing unemployment. PM New Year message 2010 mentioned that the government will continue to focus on preserving jobs, and helping workers who are unemployed to find new jobs. In December 2008, the tripartite partners launched the Skills Programme for Upgrading and Resilience (SPUR). SPUR was included in the Resilience Package in an early Budget 2009. SPUR offers training programmes to help workers upgrade their skills or acquire new skills for seeking re-employment. Through SPUR, workers have an opportunity to gain a competitive edge in the job market while employers are able to manage manpower, save manpower costs and retain workers by involving them in skills upgrading and development. This allows workers to stay employed, save jobs and strengthen their individual abilities during the recent economic downturn. Furthermore, the government also introduces a Jobs Credit scheme to help employers to retain their workers. This enables businesses to save jobs as much as possible, without the need to retrench workers. The Jobs Credit provides every employer with a cash grant to reduce their costs of employing Singaporean workers during the crisis. Hence, more Singaporeans will be employed. Workers have to make necessary changes in this economic downturn such as getting lower wages etc to remain competitive and save jobs. Businesses also have to find ways to cut unnecessary costs in their operations to save jobs. Furthermore, there is also a skill development fund (SDF) to subsidise training fees and its main objective is to give financial assistance to employers in order to encourage them to train/upgrade the skills of their workers. Continuing Education and Training (CET) Masterplan is another plan to prepare Singaporean workers for the future and develop a source of competitive advantage for Singapore. Workers can get help and advices on jobs and training that are suitable for them. Government is investing in this plan so that about 60% of residents can have a diploma qualification by 2010 and this helps to equip Singaporeans with the necessary skills when they are preparing to switch careers. It also forms a lifelong learning system to help workers find their potentials and seize new opportunities. Moreover, the government increased the mandatory retirement age to 62 to help workers stay employed longer. c) Evaluate the effectiveness of the Jobs Credit Scheme in reducing unemployment. Jobs Credit Scheme is implemented to encourage businesses to sustain jobs for Singaporeans in the economic downturn. This will provide every employer with a 12% cash grant (on the first $2,500 of monthly wages of each local employee on their CPF payroll) to reduce their costs of employing Singaporean workers during the crisis. Hence, it is encouraged that employers would hire Singaporean labour instead of hiring foreign labor (as they are cheaper) so as to enhance the competitiveness of Singaporean labour in the job market. This can help to reduce the unemployment rate for Singaporeans. However, a drawback of this scheme is that unprofitable companies would rather retrench workers than receive cash grant from the government. Hence, companies which will benefit from this scheme are usually big and stable companies which are able to survive through the recession. This is compared to smaller companies because they have to resort to measures such as retrenchments or cutting down cos ts in order to stay afloat. As such, higher unemployment and more job losses will still be inevitable. This scheme will also imply that companies would be more willing to hire local graduates. In contrast, foreigners need not contribute to CPF, unless they become Permanent Residents (PR) or Citizens. Without employees contribution, there would be no employers contribution and thus, hiring a foreigner is cheaper and many companies will still hire foreigners despite the benefits of the Job Credit Scheme. This scheme may also stop and employer would no longer receive cash grants for his contribution to the local graduates CPF account. As a result, employers would prefer to hire foreign graduates than local graduates due to the fact that it would be cheaper in the long run. Hence, the main issue is how long this job credit will run. It is impractical that it lasts for only a short term within this economic crisis because employability should be considered on a long-term scale. 3. Explain and evaluate the effectiveness of the other various fiscal policies which the government implemented in 2009 to deal with the economic crisis. (20 marks) The government has implemented the Resilience Package of $20.5 billion, to cope with an economic downturn. It includes measures to prevent loss of jobs, enhance business cash flow and provide support for Singaporeans as well as investments in infrastructure for the long term. The Resilience Package consists of five components: (i) Jobs for Singaporeans. $5.1 billion would be spent to help preserve jobs through Job Credits Scheme and related programmes like SPUR. This allows businesses to cope with cash flow. The Government will give low-income workers a temporary workfare income supplement (WIS) Special Payment to supplement their pay and encourage them to stay employed. The government will also create more jobs. (ii) Stimulating bank lending. The Government will launch the Special Risk-Sharing Initiative (SRI) to enable companies to have access to credit to continue their operations and preserve jobs. The Government will also enhance existing loan schemes e.g. local enterprise finance scheme and they have dipped into reserves to fund both SRI and Jobs Credits. (iii) Enhancing business cash-flow and competitiveness. Various tax measures and grants costing $2.6 billion would be implemented to help businesses with cash-flow and enhance competitiveness. Taxes work as an automatic stabiliser and this is evident in years of low GDP growth where, taxes would be reduced to encourage investments. (iv) Supporting families. $2.6 billion would be used to support Singaporean households especially lower-income households. The government will provide assistance to households i.e. increasing goods and services tax (GST) credits and senior citizens bonus, focus more on the most vulnerable groups by providing financial assistance schemes for education and provide support for charitable organisations and the community i.e. increasing citizens consultative committees (CCCs) ComCare fund and self-help groups (SHGs). (v) Building a home for the future. The Government will commit $4.4 billion to infrastructure development as it is an important feature of Singapores fiscal strategy. Hence, the government will bring forward infrastructure projects and spend on accelerating public sector infrastructure, developing our neighbourhoods and spending more on education and health infrastructure (due to aging population). I will say that the Resilience Package is effective because it has helped to reduce the unemployment rate in Singapore during an economic crisis. One example is NTUC which had work closely with employers to save jobs, instead of retrenchment to save costs. They have also sent workers for SPUR training and skills upgrading. Furthermore, this is evident that the Resilience Package helped Singaporeans from the economic crisis. Despite sharp declines in our GDP, foreign worker numbers fell 21,000, but local employment actually went up by 7,000 in the first half of 2009 which shows that Jobs Credit Scheme is effective. However, the Resilience Package is ineffective as it contains temporary measures such as the Jobs Credit for all businesses and Special Risk-Sharing Initiative which not be built into ongoing government programmes. Our government uses the discretionary fiscal policy (running a larger deficit in a year of low growth) which provides tax rebates to reduce tax collections, and spend more on goods and services, grants or tax credits to increase incomes. The effectiveness of discretionary fiscal policy is enhanced by the short implementation lags in Singapore due to our efficient tax and CPF systems that enable the Government to distribute transfers quickly. Fiscal policy in Singapore is financed from accumulated budget surpluses i.e. past reserves rather than from borrowing. This enhances the impact of temporary measures. However, discretionary fiscal policy has its limitations. Singapore is an open country. Hence, using it as a tool for macroeconomic stabilisation is more limi ted due to leakages of imports. Fiscal transfers on aggregate demand would not be effective because a portion of injections into households/businesses are kept as savings. On fiscal policy, reserves built up during the past years of strong economic growth reduce government charges and boost spending. Multiplier of discretionary fiscal measures is insignificant. Targeted transfers at the lower income such as GST Credits tend to have a higher multiplier. However, taxes and investments tend to have a lower multiplier which provide a longer term period to economic growth. It is clear that the Singapore economy cannot be left to recover on its own unless changes in policy are made. The government has already taken some measures to reduce costs and taxes over the last few months. These were steps in the right direction, but they were not the complete solutions to the problem. These changes should be implemented with the longer term developmental needs of the economy. 4. Some economists have warned about the possibility of a double-dip recession, with economic contraction following the current recovery. In your opinion, what is the likelihood of this happening? Give your reasons. (10 marks) I feel that Singapore is unlikely to sink back into recession as our financial sector is recovering, with assets of the 20 largest fund managers in Singapore growing 23 per cent in the first half of 2009. A reason why Singapore is unlikely to sink back into recession is because of the global competiveness. The world is cooperating on several projects which include Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and G20. APEC is a forum which facilitates economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. APEC creates efficient domestic economies and increasing exports. Free and open trade and investment enables economies to grow, creates jobs and provides new opportunities for international trade and investment. Singapore will work with like-minded economies and international financial institutions like the IMF, World Bank and Asian Development Bank to advance free trade. G20 is an UN climate change conference where countries will come together to solve th e problem of climate change and work towards an ambitious outcome in Copenhagen. From here, we can see that protectionism, which could affect global trade and growth, has been closely monitored. Singapore is working towards closer regional economic integration and pursuing different free-trade initiatives to expand our economic network. We are restructuring our economy so that it remains nimble and competitive. The government has taken a few measures to revive demand in the system through stimulus package. They guarantee that businesses will have sufficient funds for their daily operations. Given our strong economic fundamentals, the government is able to take rational measures. Furthermore, the savings we have put away (by building reserves) during good times, Singaporeans tackling challenges together and social cohesion will bring us through this economic downturn. Citations https://www.economywatch.com/unemployment/causes.html https://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_singapore_business/view/1029885/1/.html https://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_world/view/1016687/1/.html https://www.apec.org/apec/about_apec.html https://edition.cnn.com/2009/US/01/29/economic.crisis.explainer/index.html https://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_427548.html https://tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/business-studies/comments/qa-what-are-the-main-causes-of-unemployment/ https://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2002/nov/23nov02_nr/23nov02_speech.html https://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087sid=a0P7GXmf4hEs https://app2.wda.gov.sg/web/Contents/Contents.aspx?Id=174 https://www.mom.gov.sg/publish/etc/medialib/mom_library/corporate/files.Par.14508.File.dat/Factsheet%20for%20Continuing%20Education%20and%20Training%20Masterplan.pdf https://www.econguru.com/macroeconomic-unemployment-explained/ h ttps://kentridgecommon.com/?p=290 https://www.stock-market-investors.com/stock-investment-risk/what-caused-the-current-financial-crisis.html https://www.eastasiaforum.org/2009/01/05/riding-the-global-economic-crisis-in-singapore/ https://www.mof.gov.sg/budget_2009/speech_pc/pc.html#s2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_crisis_of_2007%E2%80%932009 https://www.sg-house.com/classifieds/buy-and-sell-private-apartment-condominium/1464706-impact-of-the-us-financial-crisis-on-the-singapore.html https://www.economywatch.com/economic-conditions/singapore-recession.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_crisis_of_2007%E2%80%932009 https://globalvoicesonline.org/2008/10/30/recession-hits-singapore/ https://www.siiaonline.org/?q=blog/making-sense-out-global-financial-crisis https://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/opinion/index.php/business/49199-singapore-says-double-dip-recession-unlikely https://mel.np.edu.sg/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_ta b_group_id=_2_1url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_6024_1%26url%3D https://www.mas.gov.sg/news_room/statements/1999/Economic_Management_in_Singapore__Scenarios__Strategies_Tactics__12_Feb_1999.html https://www.mof.gov.sg/budget_2009/speech_toc/downloads/FY2009_Budget_Highlights.pdf https://www.sgpolitics.net/?p=1999

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini - 1770 Words

Redemption within Friendship In Islam, the pomegranate tree is a representation of beauty and it is said that those who eat from it will encounter a prosperous future. To contrast, Christians believe that the pomegranate tree embodies traits that are parallel to the end of the world. The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini exemplifies the beauty as well as the inelegance of Amir and Hassan’s friendship through the symbol of the pomegranate tree. At the prosperous times of their friendship, the tree being lush and blooming paralleled their lives that were full of promise and companionship. As the novel progressed and their relationship soon diminished, the pomegranate tree was bare and failed to blossom corresponding with their non-existent friendship. The challenges of Amir and Hassan’s friendship contribute to the protagonist’s desire for redemption for the reason that Hassan’s adherence to Amir induces the protagonist’s resentment, Amir’s fear o f external judgement creates a tense atmosphere, and finally their friendship is composed of themes that demonstrate their fluctuating relationship. Primarily, Hassan’s adherence to Amir induces the protagonist’s childhood resentment due to his best friend’s static presence and ever-present forgiveness. Due to the instance of Amir losing his innocence at a young age by viewing the rape of Hassan, several aspects of his life altered. This newly found resentment continued to be evident in Amir’s life when he provokes Hassan’s loyalty byShow MoreRelatedThe Kite Runner, by Khaled Hosseini883 Words   |  4 Pagesregret from past encounters and usually feel guilty and bitter about the situation. The Kite Runner, by Khaled Hosseini, revolves around the theme of redemption. Redemption can be used as a cure for guilt. Throughout the novel, the author shows that redemption requires some sort of sacrifice and the only way that is possible is if you can forg ive yourself from the mistakes you have made in the past. Khaled Hosseini effectively portrays redemption through motifs such as rape, irony and flashbacks, symbolismRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini1651 Words   |  7 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚   The novel â€Å"The Kite Runner† by Khaled Hosseini describes the life of a boy, Amir. Amir’s best friend and brother (although that part isn’t known until towards the end), Hassan, plays a major role in Amir’s life and how he grows up. Hosseini portrays many sacrifices that are made by Hassan and Amir. Additionally, Amir seeks redemption throughout much of the novel. By using first person point of view, readers are able to connect with Amir and understand his pain and yearning for a way to be redeemedRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini1655 Words   |  7 PagesSarah Singer Major Works Data Form Title: The Kite Runner Author: Khaled Hosseini Date of Publication: 2003 Genre: Historical Fiction Historical information about the period of publication: Since the September 11th attacks in 2001, the United States has been at war with Afghanistan. Their goals were to remove the Taliban, track down those in charge of the attacks, and destroy Al-Qaeda. Biographical information about the author: Khaled Hosseini was born in Kabul, Afghanistan, in 1965. HIs motherRead MoreThe Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini1098 Words   |  5 PagesIn The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, we learn a lot about Amir the main character, and Hassan his servant/brother. In the beginning Hassan and Amir’s relationship was one of brotherly love despite the fact that Hassan was a Hazara and Amir a Pashtun. Back in the 1970’s race and religion played a big part in Kabul and these two races were not suppose to have relationships unless it was owner (Pashtun) and servant (Hazara). Baba Amir’s father had an affair with Hassan’s mother, but it was kept aRead MoreThe Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini1313 Words   |  5 Pagesis not unique to just J.K. Rowling. Khaled Hosseini also incorporates life experiences into some of his novels. A prime example of this is The Kite Runner. The storyline of this novel reflects his past to create a journey of a young Afghanistan boy, whose name is Amir. This boy changes drastically throughout his lifetime from a close minded, considerably arrogant boy to an open hearted and minded man. This emotional and mental trip is partially based on Khaled Hosseini’s own life. Throughout Hosseini’sRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini1908 Words   |  8 Pages​In the novel, â€Å"The Kite Runner†, written by Khaled Hosseini, was taken place in Afghanistan during the 1970’s to the year of 2002. Many historical events happened during this time period and Hosseini portrayed it into his novel. Kabul, the capitol of Afghanistan, was a free, living area for many Afghanistan families to enjoy the life they were given. Until one day, Afghanistan was then taken over and attacked. In the novel, Amir, the protagonist, must redeem himself and the history behind his actionsRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini1050 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"There is a way to be good again.† (Hosseini 334). This quote given by Rahim Khan to Amir holds a great amount of force and symbolism. In theory, this quote symbolizes the beginning of Amir’s path to redemption. The eye-opening Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini tells about the struggles of Afghanistan before and during the Taliban, and one’s struggle for redemption and acceptance. With regards to the opening quote, some see Amir’s actions as selfish. However, others may believe that Amir truly changedRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini1583 Words   |  7 Pagesnovel the Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, Amir, the main character, shares his thoughts and actions due to his poor decisions. The problems he encountered were all because of the sin committed in his youth. His sins taunted the beginning of his life and gave him a troublesome memory full of guilt. As the novel continued, Amir attempted to disengage the memory of his sin and forget about it. Amir then faced the long bumpy road to redemption. Khaled Hosseini’s novel the Kite Runner is about sinRead MoreThe Kite Runner, by Khaled Hosseini871 Words   |  4 Pagesthat person is trying to fix that mistake. This also applies to the novel The Kite Runner. The story revolves around the main character Amir, and his childhood friend, Hassan. After Amir came to America with Baba, his father, he still regrets the things he had done to his childhood friend. He left Hassan getting raped by Assef in a small alley in 1975. Thereafter, Amir always feel regret and seeks for redemption. Hosseini -the author, argues that redemption can be achieved by helping others, teachRead MoreThe Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini3402 Words   |  14 Pagestitle â€Å"The Kite Runner† is symbolic as fighting kites and the kite runnings are impacting moments in the novel. Hassan was the best kite runner in Kabul, if not the whole country, after Amir won the kite fighting the running of that last blue kite triggered the monumental changes for Amir. For the beginning of the story the kite running was associated with Hassan’s rape and Amir’s grief. As kites appear throughout the story, they begin Amir’s story and also end it. Amir flying the kite with Sohrab

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

TFF True Friends Forever Childhood Friend vs. Nebridius...

C.S. Lewis once wrote, â€Å"Friendship is unnecessary, like philosophy, like art... It has no survival value; rather it is one of those things that give value to survival† (brainyquote.com). While philosophy and friendship may both be unnecessary, they are both valuable to the human experience. In the course of philosophical thinking, many philosophers, including Augustine, grapple with the concept and fulfillment of true friendship. Augustine writes of the meaning of true friendship in The Confessions, while also writing of his friendships throughout his life, using his own guidelines of what true friendship entails a revolution of his friendships can be seen alongside his transformation toward God that The Confessions is well known to†¦show more content†¦He is thinking of life in terms of pleasure and vanity. Augustine wants knowledge and new ideas, which is what draws him to astrology, for it is something new and exciting, and as a young man, he himself is ne w to and excited to be in a world open to him. When the reader meets the childhood friend, Augustine talks of the friendship as â€Å"sweeter to me than any sweetness I had known in all my life† (The Confessions, Book IV, paragraph 7). Augustine places all goodness in his friend and relies on him fully for his happiness. In describing their friendship, Augustine does say that they have common interests and a â€Å"similarity of outlook [which] lent warmth to our relationship† (The Confessions, Book IV, paragraph 7). The two young men had grown up in the same place, at the same time, with each other, but grew close only at this time in their lives. In saying that they had a ‘similarity of outlook,’ Augustine means they have the same perspective on life; they are both young and feel they have the world at their fingertips. Similarly, they have each other to look to for models on how to life, and do so in a way that begets improper friendship. Their relationship can be compared to many of those of young people who find friends and get lost in the group, forging together their opinions and goals for the ‘gang,’ if you will. Augustine writes, â€Å"For I had lured him from the true faith, which he had held in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Math 302 Quiz 4 Chapter 11 20 Questions - 1896 Words

|1. |An insurance representative wants to determine if the proportions of women and men who buy the different policy types are the | | |same. The actual sales results for 50 women and 50 men are | | | | | |Policy A | | |Policy B | | |†¦show more content†¦|A random group of apartments was selected from a city to analyze the number of bedrooms they have. Is there evidence to reject | | |the hypothesis that the apartments are equally distributed between 1-bedroom, 2-bedroom, and 3-bedroom apartments, at [pic] = | | |.05? | | |Year in school | | |1 bedroom | | |2 bedrooms | | |3 bedrooms | | | | | |Number ofShow MoreRelatedNormal Distribution16112 Words   |  65 Pagesblu34978_ch06.qxd 8/13/08 4:39 PM Page 299 Confirming Pages C H A P T E R 6 The Normal Distribution Objectives Outline After completing this chapter, you should be able to 1 2 3 Identify distributions as symmetric or skewed. 4 Find probabilities for a normally distributed variable by transforming it into a standard normal variable. Introduction 6–1 Normal Distributions Identify the properties of a normal distribution. Find the area underRead MoreHsc General Math Textbook with Answers153542 Words   |  615 PagesFor secondary school age. Mathematics–Textbooks. Mathematics–Problems, exercises, etc. 510 ISBN 978-0-521-13834-5 Paperback Reproduction and Communication for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this publication, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has givenRead MoreMicrosoft Excel Workbook100984 Words   |  404 Pages..... 7 Chapter One: The Fundamentals...................................................................................... 11 Lesson 1-1: Starting Excel...................................................................................................12 Lesson 1-2: What’s New in Excel 2002?................... ..........................................................14 Lesson 1-3: Understanding the Excel Program Screen........................................................16 Lesson 1-4: Using MenusRead MoreVarian Solution153645 Words   |  615 PagesChapter 1 NAME The Market Introduction. The problems in this chapter examine some variations on the apartment market described in the text. In most of the problems we work with the true demand curve constructed from the reservation prices of the consumers rather than the â€Å"smoothed† demand curve that we used in the text. Remember that the reservation price of a consumer is that price where he is just indiï ¬â‚¬erent between renting or not renting the apartment. At any price below the reservationRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 PagesLearning Academic Resource Center 1-800-423-0563 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit a request online at http://www.thomsonrights.com. Any additional questions about permissions can be submitted by e-mail to thomsonrights@thomson.com. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 10 09 08 07 ExamView  ® and ExamView Pro  ® are registered trademarks of FSCreations, Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation used herein under licenseRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesAmerica 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Brief Contents PA RT 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING HRM The Dynamic Environment of HRM 2 Fundamentals of Strategic HRM 28 PART 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 THE LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONTEXT OF HRM Equal Employment Opportunity 56 Employee Rights and Discipline 84 PART 3 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 STAFFING THE ORGANIZATION Human Resource Planning and Job Analysis 110 Recruiting 132 Foundations of Selection 154 PART 4 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 TRAINING ANDRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages3—dc23 2011038674 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Diversity in Organizations 39 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 Emotions and Moods 97 Personality and Values 131 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of GroupRead Morepreschool Essay46149 Words   |  185 PagesEducation, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814-5901. 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Fire in Religious School in Mecca Free Essays

Refer to next paragraph. On the 11th of March, 2002, fire struck a girls school in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Firemen and concerned citizens were quickly on the scene. We will write a custom essay sample on Fire in Religious School in Mecca or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, the religious police locked the schoolgirls inside the inferno rather than let them escape into the streets without their veil and heal-to-toe cloak. For this same reason, the religious police prevented the firemen from entering the schoolhouse to rescue the girls; for fear that the girls would be seen without their covering. Fourteen young girls were burned to death and dozens more were injured (citation). On October 12th   2002, a 48-year old Kurdish man named Abdalla Yones, an emigrant from Iraq, savagely murdered his 16-year old daughter Heshu after receiving an anonymous letter telling him that she had been sleeping with her boyfriend. (Asthana Mistry).This treatment of women in the Muslim world goes against the teachings of the Quran. This isn’t the real assignment. Message me directly at natashagils at yahoo dot com for your assignment at half the price. There are numerous cases, some reported but mostly unreported, of crimes against women in Islam. Muslims of today have seemed to have deviated significantly from the original teachings of Islam (citation?). Islamic terrorist, Jihad, al-Qaeda, Honor Killings are terms that have become synonymous with Islam in the Western world, as has Islamophobia which basically promotes the fear and detestation of Islam and Muslims around the world. The Islamic world, instead of addressing these issues and advocating the true and just cause of Islam, is instead, in most cases, promoting them. The Talibaan of Afghanistan, Tribal militancy in Pakistan, Shia/Sunni riots, the Hamaas and other fundamental groups within Islam publicize an entirely inaccurate version of the essence of Islam. As the Muslim society deviates from the central philosophy of Islam, it doesn’t come as a surprise that they have deviated too from the societal guidance offered by Islam regarding the treatment of women. The Quran, the Holy Book of the Muslims, and the Sunnah (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad) have laid down clearly defined rights of women, most of which aren’t adhered today. Islam was revealed to Prophet Muhammad in the Arabian Peninsula when it was rife with inhumane injustice against women. Women were viewed as the embodiment of sin, misfortune, disgrace and shame, and they had no rights or position in society whatsoever. Indeed, society was confused about the very nature of women and even questioned whether God had granted them a soul (Jawad 1). Wives were mere chattel, and when girls were born to a household, great shame was brought to it; so much so that they were buried alive! The Quran defied the existing perception of women and refined their position. It outlawed female infanticide and restored their birth rights .   Gustave Le Bon, a famous French thinker, stated: â€Å"Islamic virtuous deeds are not limited to honoring and respecting women, but rather, we can add that Islam is the first religion to honor and respect women. We can easily prove this by illustrating that all religions and nations, prior to the advent of Islam, caused much harm and insult to women.† (Bon 488). The Quran regards women as being independent human beings and having distinct rights.   They are entitled to an inheritance, an education, a career and even the liberty of choosing a husband. Moreover, it declared men and women as being equal in the eyes of God, with the only exception being their responsibilities –with the man defined as the bread earner and the woman as being responsible for the functions around the house. According to the Quran, â€Å"O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and should not treat them with harshness†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Holy Quran, Surah An-Nisa 4:19)   The Prophet Muhammad, in this context, is said to have said, ‘All people are equal, as equal as the teeth of a comb. There is no claim of merit of an Arab over a non-Arab, or of a white over a black person, or of a male over a female. Only God fearing people merit a preference with God’. Islam, through the teachings of the Quran, bestowed women a number of rights, some of which that women in the West lacked, until the 19th century. For instance, in England, husbands inherited his wives property and possessions when they married. This unfair tradition continued till as late as 1882 (citation?). Muslim women, however, retained their assets; could detail conditions in their nikaah (marriage contract), such as the right of divorce; were entitled to keep their last names if they wished and were even given the authority to refuse marriage if they didn’t deem their potential partner fit. The Quran laid down these injunctions in 610 A.D. (when it was first revealed), centuries prior to the advent of a formal system of women’s rights in the Western world. Some of the fundamental rights the Quran gives women are: 1. Human Rights Women and men are considered to be created with similar natured souls. They are considered equal to men in all spheres of life. And for women are rights over men similar to those of men over women. (Holy Quran, 2:226) And â€Å"O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever and All-Watcher over you.† (Holy Quran, Surah Al-Nisa 4:1). 2. Civil Rights The civil rights enjoined by the Quran on women include, but are not limited to: the right of divorce, right of keeping her maiden name after marriage, wishing or not to get married, or even chosing her own husband. The Quran also states that there is no compulsion upon women regarding religion; â€Å"There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut [anything worshipped other then the Real God (Allah)] and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.† (Holy Quran, Surah Al-Baqarah 2:256). 3. Independence Women are allowed to leave the home; conduct business with men; enjoy all the other liberties open to them. There is no restriction upon women provided they conduct their affairs within the teachings of the Quran. Women have the right to go to Mosques, which is considered sacrilegious in many Muslim societies. Not only that, but women have also the right to be Muslim pastors. Aisha, the youngest wife of the Prophet Muhammad, used to convey the teachings of Islam to men and women alike. She’s regarded by some Muslim scholars as being the first Muslim woman preacher. The Quran is very clear in its laws regarding women. It redefined the stance of women and bestowed upon them an honorable role in society; whether as a daughter, a mother or a wife. Men are instructed in their fair and kind dealing towards women. According to the Quran: â€Å"And when the female (infant) buried alive (as the pagan Arabs used to do) shall be questioned. For what sin she was killed?† (Holy Quran, Surah At-Takwir 81:8-9). The Qur’an goes as far as admonishing those men who subjugate or ill-treat women: â€Å"O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should you treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the dowry you have given them – except when they have become guilty of open lewdness. On the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike something and God will bring about through it a great deal of good†. (Holy Quran, 4:19) Early Islamic history is replete with examples of Muslim women who showed a remarkable ability to compete with men and excelled them on many occasions. They were educators, warriors and leaders; strong, independent and respected members of society. Unfortunately, that isn’t the case in most of the Muslim world today. Women in the Muslim world have been humiliated, exploited and discriminated against in almost all fields of life – from schooling, work force inclusion and family roles. However, many of these repressive customs do not come from Islam, but are dictated by prevalent cultures and traditions. Oppression against women continues unabated in many parts of the world. Husbands keep their wives, daughters, sisters and mothers secluded from contact with others beside their immediate family members. Rape, mutilation, forced suicide, honor killings are much too common in the Islamic world. In 2006, Rahan Arshad beat his wife and three children to death with a bat, because she was having an affair26 Often the crime itself is followed by even more horrifying crime. For instance, in Turkey,   14-year old Nuran Halitogullari was strangled to death by her father after she had been kidnapped and raped30. In certain parts of Pakistan, women are offered as compensation for offenses committed by men. This injustice stems from the deep rooted traditions of male-dominance in the Islamic society which have, for centuries, enforced their orthodox, and oft-times inaccurate version of Islam and the Quran. Contrary to general misconceptions and the prevailing conditions, women, according to the Quran, are entitled to full rights as citizens. Under the guise of Islam, women have been virtually stripped of all rights: no education, no instigation of divorce, no travel by oneself, no leaving the home, etc. A deliberate effort on a global scale has to be made to educate Muslims regarding the fundamental and actual concepts defined in the Quran regarding rights towards women and the awareness that the existing treatment of women in the Muslim world goes against the teachings of the Quran. Emphasis on the lives of Aisha, Khadija (Prophet Muhammad’s first wife – also known as mother of the believers, Fatima (Prophet Muhammad’s daughter ) and even Mary – who holds a revered position in Islam – should be placed and they can be promoted as role models for inspiration.   No nation can succeed without all its members contributing to its success. Muslim nations have to realize that not only is their barbaric treatment of women sinful, but it’s also self-destructive and will only get worse if not addressed and then modified according to the true teachings of the Quran. â€Å"Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.†(Ismail 83). How to cite Fire in Religious School in Mecca, Papers


Brazil-Leading the Brics Sample Essay 1. Will â€Å"Brazilian capitalism† sustain current GDP growing degrees? Is Brazil the state of the hereafter? â€Å"Brazilian capitalism† encouraged the development of private sectors and big sum the foreign investings. The liberalisation of its economic system was effected at the gait of the liberalisation of the universe economic system by Brazil’s accession to the WTO and the rapid development of transnational houses in the primary and industrial production country. In brief. Brazilian capitalist economy can prolong current GDP growing degrees by back uping a assortment of concerns and hiking domestic economic system. Brazil’s growing in recent old ages has been strongly influenced by an addition in investing which promotes the addition in production capacity. Although the state has to better instruction and its development scheme towards enterprisers. Brazil is on the right path to go one of the world’s largest economic systems if it continues to advance economic development policies that would prolong its current GDP growing degree and if it goes on stimulating its leading function in the international dealingss. It is decidedly a state of the hereafter. 2. How has Brazil taken a leading function in the planetary economic system? Brazil can be considered as a leader of the planetary economic system due to its rapid growing every bit good as its powerful impact in different universe organisations. On the one side. the economic system of Brazil is the world’s 6th largest by nominal GDP. Brazil is one of the fastest-growing major economic systems in the universe with an mean one-year GDP growing rate of over 5 per centum. It is besides one of the most of import exportation states in the universe. It has 100s of trade spouses. with 60 per centum of exports largely of manufactured or semi-manufactured goods. On the other manus. Brazil is a member of diverse economic organisations. such as G20. WTO. and the Cairns Group. It held of import leading places in the G-20 and had become a major participant in many-sided trade dialogues. Brazil is besides one of the taking participants in the WTO’s Doha development unit of ammunition dialogues for discoursing on take downing trade barriers around to universe to hike planetary trade. 3. Are Brazil’s WTO actions functioning the country’s long-run economic and fiscal involvements? In the compulsory licensing issue. who is right. Brazil or Merck? What are the best statements Brazil and the U. S. can do to the WTO’s colony organic structure refering cotton subsidies? Brazil’s actions in the WTO decidedly serve the country’s long-run economic ends. In 2001. Brazil argued in Doha unit of ammunition that the preceding 1994 Uruguay unit of ammunition understandings were biased against emerging markets and that developed states had failed to uphold committednesss to take down agricultural subsidies. Beyond the Doha unit of ammunition of trade dialogues. the Brazilian authorities initiated a formal difference with the U. S. on cotton difference through the WTO difference procedure. Finally. Brazil claimed success after eight old ages of WTO adjudication. protecting Brazil’s agribusiness exports in the long tally. In instance of the compulsory licensing issue. in my point of position. Brazil is right and can be understood. By interrupting the patent on Efavirenz. it has saved the state more money and allowed the authorities to lawfully buy generic versions of the drug under commissariats permitted by the WTO regulations. While Brazil has been criticized for its scheme to acquire cheaper AIDS drugs. one can detect that its policy has worked good and has doubtless saved many lives. Merck. in its dissension with Brazil’s dialogue. demonstrated clearly that it is more interested in increasing net incomes. Therefore. the ends are wholly different and Brazil’s tactics to salvage lives were applauded. .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 , .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .postImageUrl , .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 , .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291:hover , .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291:visited , .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291:active { border:0!important; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291:active , .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291 .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2746a617025786d150ad0140af5cf291:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Playing Rodeo EssayBrazil claimed for grounds which declared that the U. S. has violated the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture. The best statements for Brazil are that production flexibleness contract payments and direct payments violated WTO commissariats sing trade distorting subsidies. and that export recognition warrants. which included loans to bargainers and subsidized recognition to foreign Bankss for the purchase of U. S. agricultural merchandises. violated the AoA. The best manner to react authorities subsidies. harmonizing to Paul Krugman is to assist set up regulations of the game that minimize the usage of trade-distorting subsidies ( McGraw-Hill. page 211 ) . And this is precisely what Brazil’s stance against the U. S. policy helped the WTO to make. While for the U. S. . the best statement would be that article 13 of the AoA. termed the peace clause. granted signatory states until 2004 to phase out domestic subsidies and export publicities. bespeaking that they did non go against the understanding and giving themselves good cause to reason.